There have been quite a few amazing NCTE reflection posts around the internet, and we here at chartchums would be remiss if we did not add ours in to the mix. There were so many things that made the NCTE convention special, not the least of which was the incredible community of educators we were among.
So much of our profession is about giving. We give time―to planning, to parents, to meetings, to a special lunch date with a kiddo. We give energy―to our students, to our schools, to our runs up and down flights of stairs. We give our hearts―to everyone. There comes a time when you can feel all given out―when you look around and think, “That’s it, I’ve got nothing left.” For Kristi, that was the week before NCTE. She was fighting a cold while trying to meet data deadlines, finishing up long nights of parent teacher conferences, and finalizing overdue writing projects. Kristi felt she had reached a point of tapping out. Going to a conference on literacy seemed about as desirable as sticking hot knives in her eyes.
Yet, she went. As did so many of you―just as tired, just as empty-feeling.
But here is the thing―every second of NCTE, whether listening to amazing and powerful presentations from people like Kathy Collins and Matt Glover, browsing the booths to see the latest and greatest books, meeting people you fell in love with over twitter (Hi Shawna!!!), falling in love with new people (Hi Katie and Sara!!!!), or seeing friends that fill you with hope and joy (Hi Kristin!!!), NCTE is about filling ourselves up. Filling ourselves up with knowledge, filling ourselves with hope, filling ourselves with joy and energy.
And it is important that we take time to fill ourselves back up, so we can give everything back once again.
Since all of you were not able to attend the conference, we are giving you a summary of our workshop, so you can virtually experience the benefits of NCTE, but as far as the laser light show and ice slide, that you will have to imagine!
The Art of Capturing the Story of Learning Through Teaching Charts – and Changing the Narrative of Children’s Learning in the Process
We (Kristi and Marjorie) were lucky to present with a brilliant writer, editor and friend, Zoe Ryder White. Zoe brought the critical (and sometimes overlooked) parent perspective to our work with charts, and shared how charts can empower children at home, as well as school.
Our presentation focused on the “meta” aspects of charting, specifically that charting is a way to teach types of thinking and that charts underscore a growth mindset.
We spoke about how we believe that certain types of charts help promote certain types of thinking:
- routine charts promote organized thinking and problem solving
- repertoire charts promote flexible, yet tenacious, thinking
- process charts promote strategic thinking
- exemplar charts teach that thinkers look to models and analyze them
- concept charts promote the idea that thinking is grown and revised over time
Some questions we asked our audience, which we ask you also, is: What is the thinking that you demonstrate in your charts? Do you tend to show just one way? Or do you have a varied menu of ways of thinking that you are (implicitly or explicitly) teaching children?
We also spoke a bit about how (smarter) charts are automatically oriented towards a growth mindset. By making and using charts with children, you are showing a path in which to grow. By encouraging goal setting and flexibility, you are helping children realize a positive association between effort and outcome.
Zoe shared some of the ways her child’s incredibly reflective teacher, Maureen Crowley at PS 29 in Brooklyn, has been sending charts home as part of her action research, and how those charts have created feelings of agency in children. No longer adrift with a pile of a books and general ideas, reading charts sent home can anchor children in the work of school, even when they are at home. Zoe also spoke about how the use of charts (and teaching children about the purpose and power of charts) has motivated her own child to create charts to help herself with challenges that arise at home―like getting everything done in the morning before school. Some ways to send charts home/share with parents:
- tweet them out
- post them on a class blog
- add them to a class newsletter
- put them in reading baggies
- put them in folders: math, writing, homework
- use them as shared reading
We hope this helps you in your charting journey and look forward to hearing from you as to the ways you are using charts to help your children think flexibly and independently.
Kristi and Marjorie, and Zoe, too!
The quote “Everything old is new again” could not ring truer for some of the charts in our classrooms. Charts that were hung up at the start of the year and still remain hanging, but are no longer relevant or needed, are simply old. However, so much of what we teach is meant to be carried forward, to spiral, as Jerome Bruner taught us so many years ago. And charts can help make this happen, by taking what was old and making it new again.
For those of you who have been following us for awhile and have read our books, Smarter Charts and Smarter Charts for Math, Science and Social Studies, you are familiar with the 3 R’s of charting: reposition, revise, or retire. We thought we would show you some examples of how charts can be revised over a few months and across changing units of study to remain pertinent and important to the students in your class.
We will start with a writing chart Marjorie made at the start of the year when introducing how the writing of personal stories can be generated and planned. One chart is a repertoire chart with strategies for remembering stories; the other is a process chart that reminds students the steps for planning out a story. Generating topics and planning are an important part of the writing process.
When a new unit started on writing How-to books, rather than making a brand new chart, Marjorie brought the original story chart back down to the easel and reminded the students of what they had already learned about writing books. She then shared with the children that even though they would be starting a different kind of writing, teaching others how to do things, the process was the same. They would still think, tell, draw and write. All they had to do was revise the story chart to make it match the current unit. So the word story was changed to how-to, topic, and steps, depending on the step.
This leads to the other part of the quote from above, “Everything that is new is old.”
The next unit was an informational writing unit based on the book Kristi wrote with Barb Golub and Lucy Calkins, on Writing Information Chapter Books. The children were expected to write all about topics they had personal experience with, but even so, the writing process remains basically the same. So again, instead of making a brand new chart, Marjorie brought back the revised How-to chart and again showed the children that what they already knew how to do would help them with writing informational books too.
Helping children understand that everything that is old is new again and that everything that’s new is old can be a powerful step in understanding that all learning is about using what we know to grow new understandings and strengthen the skills we have learned. This idea works no matter the content being studied. If revision helps us see anew, revising our charts will help our children see that what they have learned will help them learn even more.
Until next time, Happy Charting!
Marjorie & Kristi
Wow! It is hard to believe that the 2014-2015 school year is already well under way. We at Chartchums have been busy getting back into the classroom, putting the final touches on a digital course about charting for the Heinemann Digital Campus, and welcoming our newest book, Smarter Charts for Math, Science and Social Studies: Making Learning Visible in the Content Areas into the world. This book is the perfect companion to our original Smarter Charts book where we first showed you the why of charts and the nuts and bolts of charting. It also continues the charting conversations we engage in here at Chartchums.
In our latest book we build upon our original charting foundation and go even deeper into the different types of charts and how they can support instruction, no matter what you are teaching. This book goes beyond literacy and will show you how to turn complex ideas into kid-friendly visuals, help children internalize complex processes, and even increase your instructional time, no matter what the content area or subject you are teaching.
In addition to the introduction, appendix, and bibliography, there are five sections that define and illustrate each type of chart and how it can be used to clarify and energize your teaching, showing you how you can . . . Make learning visible in the content areas!
Section 1: Routine Charts: Supporting the Engagement Necessary for Independent Functioning
Section 2: Genre and Concept Charts: Charts That Teach Beyond “Just the Facts”
Section 3: Process Charts: Every Strategy Has a Process Attached to It
Section 4: Repertoire Charts: Decision Making and Strategic Thinking
Section 5: Exemplar Charts: Bringing It Back to the Big Picture
This week we will focus on Routine charts since they are such an integral staple at the beginning of the year.
Section 1: Routine Charts – Supporting the Engagement Necessary for Independent Functioning
What is it? Why would I make it?
Routine charts make clear the expectations and help kids know what to do and how to do it in order to be productive, positive, and proud throughout each and every day.
For example, playing math games. Teaching the routine of deciding what to play, reading the rules, setting up the game so you can play, play, play, then not to forget the clean-up at the end. The chart helps remind children of the steps that will allow them to participate in math games smoothly, allowing more time for playing and fun.
What about the routines that have to do with the basic smooth functioning of the classroom and the maintenance of materials? Think about all the materials we put out for our students to use. How often do we assume our kids know how to use them, or better yet, know how we think they should be used. Instead of getting upset, plan on teaching into the ways we want to see these materials used. One typical routine often pertains to the use of the hand sanitizer. Every year we think we can simply put out this important sanitary tool and all germs will go away. What we often forget is that kids often see this gelatinous substance as a fun sensory thing worth experiencing ‘hands on’ and spreading the fun around. Teaching explicitly into how to use this key tool can save not only time but money.
Another routine that needs to be taught explicitly is how exactly to put materials away. Whether math, science, reading or writing, there should be a routine that helps everyone end the workshop efficiently and quickly. One important thing for students to learn is how to put books away, especially at the start of the school year. This chart was one Kristi created with her Kindergarten students for returning books to their proper homes in the library.
Routines may seem simple and easy, but routines only get that way by teaching each step explicitly, providing many opportunities for practice, and providing visual reminders of those steps. Routines, like anything important, are worth charting with the students in order to be for the students.
Until next time, Happy Charting!
Marjorie & Kristi
As teachers across the world ready themselves for the new school year ahead, we thought we would clean house a bit and first organize the past year of posts here at Chartchums by creating a table of contents for the 2013-2014 school year. Most of these posts are universal and do not expire simply because a new school year is upon us. We hope you find this helpful and use it as a reminder of things past that worked and an inspiration for your charting as you begin another school year.
Chartchums 2013-2014 School Year Table of Contents
- Charting the Past: A Table of Contents (2012-2013)
- Working Smarter Not Harder
- Tools of the [Chart] Trade
- Technologically Speaking
- “I’m done!” Planning for the Predictable
- Answering Readers’ Questions
- Getting Off to the “Write” Start
- Method to Our (Charting) Madness
- Presenting the Podcast, Pondering the Past and Looking to the Future
- Transforming Charts into Tools
- Non-Fiction, Non-Problem Revisited
- Want Kids to Walk the Walk? Then Chart the Talk!
And along with our new book, Smarter Charts for Math, Science and Social Studies (#SmarterCharts), we’ll have some new posts coming soon. Until then, Happy Charting!
Marjorie & Kristi
We were thrilled to see and reconnect with so many teachers and Chartchums followers at the Teachers College Reading and Writing Workshop 86th Saturday Reunion. We were inspired by Kathy Collins who reminded us that we are teaching children for life, not just for school and she suggested we find the simplicity, the essential elements that stand the test of time, like Shaker Furniture, in our teaching. We agree and try to do that with the charts we create. This week we are revisiting an earlier post on nonfiction charts that can support both reading and writing since many of you have told us you are trying to help your children actively read and write informational texts.
With the adoption of the common core state standards, many schools have seen an increased emphasis on nonfiction reading and writing. Many of the schools we work with across the country are beefing up nonfiction libraries, working on nonfiction writing year round, and incorporating plenty of nonfiction into their read aloud and shared reading time. What can happen when we teach nonfiction is that we get caught up on the content and forget the valuable reading skills that children can gain from reading informational books and will further develop through the reading of just right nonfiction texts. In this post you will find a variety of nonfiction reading and writing charts intended to support a classroom of second graders, but can easily be tweaked to support any grade level.
This chart supports a classroom of children who, when asked, “What is this book teaching?” give the most basic and undeveloped of answers. You may teach, and subsequently chart, that the questions nonfiction readers ask themselves to make sure they are getting all the information the author is offering. The quick sketches could be from a read aloud that you did ahead of time, or you could even use the photos from that book. You may need to teach all of these questions, just a few, or maybe none at all. As you may recall from a previous post, the magic number on a chart is four (+/- 1). More than five things on any chart means that one thing is likely to be forgotten or never used. Sometimes less really is more. After teaching this big work, you may do what Alyssa did (our guest blogger from a few posts back) and make a smaller version of these questions for certain readers to keep with them at all times.
This is a chart that might be used to support nonfiction readers who hang on to the coolest fact as the most important one. You know the experience; after reading an entire book about sharks you ask about the most important information, and all you hear echoed back is the one line about how sharks can smell a drop of blood from miles away. (true- its why Kristine gets knee deep in the ocean and then runs back out). The tricky part is, for some children, that is THEIR most important part, but that may not be what the author was trying to emphasize. There are a few strategies listed to tie children back into the text. Depending on the level and style of nonfiction book your children are reading, these strategies may not work. If your children’s books have no headings, well then using the heading is going to be awfully hard. It is helpful to study your students’ materials before jumping into your teaching. Again, this chart would be stickier and stronger if the samples were from texts you read aloud or from leveled texts you used during your lessons.
When teaching any strategies around a big skill, it is helpful to think about teaching a few and then spending a day or two reminding children to use the chart and to choose whichever strategy will work for them in the book they are reading now.
Starting in Kindergarten, children are expected to name a topic, then in first and second grade the CCSS talks specifically about children being able to introduce a nonfiction topic in their writing. It seems worth assessing if children can do this well. If not, you might teach, and then chart, some of the above strategies. This chart could look many different ways. This one lists the strategies out of context, but you could take a great nonfiction introduction from a read aloud, write it on chart paper, and mark the same things in context on that introduction. If one introduction doesn’t support the strategies you want to teach, you could mimic Rosie’s chart, “Leads to Hook Your Reader!” from “Checking in On Charts” and replace the fiction mentors with nonfiction ones. Finally, you could use student work to show examples of what each of these things look like in action. There is a very fine line between inspiration and copying, and when children mimic examples that you have posted they are using them as a powerful scaffold. The next introduction they write may not need to lean so heavily on the models.
The standards for nonfiction writing mention “developing” your topic, which to us sounds like elaboration. For each strategy, there are multiple ways this can be done. For example, to give definitions you could: use a word box, a glossary, or an in-text definition. Even when something is named in the standard, like definitions, we want to give children choice in how they approach it in their own work. To make this more powerful, you could again use mentor texts that you have studied or samples from student work. There are countless ways to elaborate nonfiction writing, so the best place to start is with assessing the ways your writers use and don’t use elaboration strategies. You can scour nonfiction texts for examples to share and then put them on the chart with a descriptor so children will be able to recreate it in their own work.
Just like with the reading skills, when you teach a big skill like elaboration you may want to spend a few days teaching all the different ways, and then another day or two in using the chart to make smart choices in our own writing.
Remember Kathy Collins’s suggestion to find simplicity when teaching. Charts don’t have to be fancy or perfect, but they do need to be simple.
Marjorie Martinelli and Kristine Mraz
Class charts are just that – for the class, the whole class. They capture your teaching and provide a resource for children when they need a quick reminder, a guide for how to do something, or an exemplar to view as a model. We have talked about ways to make charts interactive with the use of post-its and making smaller table-top versions or individual copies for kids folders or book baggies. While all these options have been used successfully, there are always children who need something else, a variation, or a complete new kind of chart. Turning charts into tools that can match individual needs is one way to do this.
Marjorie recently worked with some first grade teachers at PS 256 in the Bedford Stuyvesant section of Brooklyn who were trying to figure out some ways to get the kids rereading their books repeatedly without just repeatedly reading each and every book in the exact same way. The whole purpose of multiple reads of a text is that both fluency and comprehension improve. In other words, the reading gets better. How to solve the problem then of when a small group of students don’t seem to understand the value in rereading their books multiple times and therefore not progressing as readers? For this small group of children something else was needed. The teachers and Marjorie came up with the idea of teaching the children a routine for rereading that laid out a different focus for each time a book was read.
They came up with five different ideas for rereading a book. A first read was usually figuring out the words, the second read was often to smooth out the reading, the third time was to look more closely at the pictures adding to their understanding of what the book was about, the fourth time was to read with expression, matching one’s voice to tone and mood, and lastly rereading to post-it important parts worth thinking and talking more about. Marjorie then sketched out a bookmark with these five ways to reread a book. The teachers immediately thought that all their students could benefit from such a support, but for some children, five ways might be too much. Variations were made by simply removing some of the options, so that there was one kind of bookmark that had only three ways and one that had four ways to reread a book.
Also, how the children used the bookmarks could be adjusted depending on needs. For example, in one class there were a few children who would benefit from rereading each book three times in a row and using a paper clip to keep track and prompt them to keep going. Another class thought the sliding paper clip idea might work for all the children and make it feel like a game.
The bookmarks became helpful tools to put into each child’s hands and set them up to take on more ownership of their reading and responsibility for rereading with intention and purpose. And each bookmark could quickly and easily be adjusted depending on needs and reading levels. Any chart can be transformed into a tool and even more importantly, be customized for each student.
Marjorie & Kristi
In the NCTE position paper on Formative Assessment (October 21, 2013) there is a handy list of ten elements that make up formative assessment. Number five on the list reads:
Requires development of plans for attaining the desired goals.
Hallelujah, we say! So often all we think about is what kids need, or what we need, without quite figuring out how to get there. Its like saying, “I need a million dollars” without having any actual plan to save money, increase your income, or play the lottery. Sad to say making a wish or stating a need alone does not get you the million dollars (but if it does, we will leave our contact information in the comments). Carol Dweck, author of Mindset (2007), and all around intellectual crush of Kristi’s and Marjorie both, speaks to this idea as well. She cites research from Peter Gollwitzer that finds just declaring you will change results in no change at all. Knowing how to get what you need is as critical as knowing what you need. More from Mindset:
What works is making a vivid, concrete plan: “Tomorrow during my break, I’ll get a cup of tea, close the door to my office, and call the graduate school.” Or in another case: “On Wednesday morning, right after I get up and brush my teeth, I’ll sit at my desk and start writing my report.” … Think of something you need to do, something you want to learn, or a problem you have to confront. What is it? Now make a concrete plan. When will you follow through on your plan? Where will you do it? How will you do it? Think about it in vivid detail….These concrete plans – plans you can visualize – about when, where, and how you are going to do something lead to really high levels of follow through, which, of course, ups the chance of success (Dweck, p. 228).
This, dear friends, is where charts come in!
Co-creating a personalized or class chart helps children visualize the attainment of whatever goal they have, which in turn will lead to increased follow through and success. We write down recipes and directions for a reason. It is not enough to know you want to make lasagna, you need the steps to be successful. Once your formative assessments have helped you and your students identify areas of need, charts help everyone get there, they provide the steps. We refer to these particular charts as process charts, and have more about them in our upcoming book, Smarter Charts for Math, Science and Social Studies.
1. Use your goal (or destination) as your heading. This keeps the focus on the big idea, not the ticky tacky bits that make it up.
2. Use numbers or arrows when appropriate, these small reminders help children be organized in their thinking and their work.
3. Co-construct the chart so that the children visualize alongside you, using their language as much as possible to make the chart meaningful and personal.
4. Use visuals that break down the steps quickly and easily.
Supporting an Individual Child’s Growth in Reading
Step 1: The Formative Assessment:
Kristi found that this student had a host of snap words he knew by heart in isolation, but when it came time to reading books, all that knowledge flew out the window. His running records showed many miscues for words that he knew on sight. Usage of these words as he read would help his comprehension and his accuracy. As an English Language Learner, this child was at a disadvantage in relying on his syntax, but sight words could be a strength for him to depend on.
Step 2: The Plan
Kristi sat with this child to explain the conundrum, ending with the reason why snap words matter to readers. It helps us understand and read the book, saving our brain energy for the tricky words. The child and Kristi co-constructed a plan: first warm up to remember all the words he knows, then take a book walk to see if he could find any of those words in the book he wanted to read, then read the book.
The when: Before you read
The where: On the snap word list, and in the books
The how: Warm-up and then go!
Supporting Whole Class Growth in Comparing and Contrasting
Step 1: The Formative Assessment
Marjorie asked a group of students to compare and contrast two photos of classrooms from long ago and today and found that many children struggled. Some did not know what to write, some just wrote about one photo, some described what they thought was happening.
Step 2: The Plan
Marjorie designed lessons around the lenses children could use to look at photos, emphasizing that when you look between two items, you always want to ask yourself: what is the same? what is different?
The when: Whenever you have two things in front of you, it is a worthy endeavor to figure out out how they are the same and how they are different.
The where: In social studies, science, reading, writing, math – any of these times could work for comparing two things.
The how: Go slowly and systematically, when you try to see everything you see nothing. Choose one lens at a time and repeat the plan as needed.
Just One More Reason To Love Charts!
Charts are not just descriptive: here is how we did something, they can also be prescriptive: here is how to do something. In a classroom you may have charts that represent both ideas, but the important thing is that you have charts. Charts serve as a way to grow independence, but also as models of ways to achieve success. A thoughtful recording of the where, when, and how is a skill that will help children (and teachers!) for a lifetime.
Share your thoughts in the comments below! Happy Charting!
Kristi and Marjorie