In many writing classrooms the year starts off with children sharing personal memories and writing stories and teachers modeling how to find stories if stuck, how to tell a story sequentially, and how to elaborate a story using step by step actions and descriptive details. There are a few key charts you may want to consider making with your students to support this ambitious work – a writing process chart, a strategy chart, an exemplar chart, and a conventions chart.
Helping children understand that writing is a process is important work, especially at the beginning of the year. Donald Murray, author of A Writer Teaches Writing (1968, 2004), first described this process as a way of breaking down writing into understandable steps, to show how writing is made so he could teach others. Writers collect ideas, draft, revise, and edit. While there are many variations of the writing process this is a good basic one to teach our young writers. It lets them know that writing is not perfect the first time pictures and words are put down on paper, that it takes lots of starts and stops, trials and errors, before it ends up published. We typically show the writing process as a circle to emphasize its endlessness, although we know that that there are many times writers jump around for example from revising to editing, then back to more revising. The most important thing we want our student writers to know is that when a writer finishes one piece the cycle starts all over again. Below is a chart that Kristi made that continues to be a favorite of many teachers.
Another chart you will definitely need is a strategy chart, or what we now refer to as a repertoire chart. As we described in Smarter Charts, this kind of chart records a list of strategies for a big skill, which allows children to self-select the strategy that matches what they need to do. It also typically grows over multiple lessons. Increasing children’s skill of elaboration is one goal that encourages revision.
Setting clear expectations for what a well-written story looks and sounds like is best accomplished by showing children examples of books written by other children their same age. Then, by looking at the exemplar piece of writing together and naming what the writer has done to make it so good, can really underscore all that you have been teaching and even provide ideas for other things to teach and for students to learn. Once the piece of writing is annotated it becomes an exemplar chart that children can compare their own writing to or refer to when looking for other things they could try.
Editing is an important part of the writing process because writing is meant to be read by others. This means that writers work hard to make their writing easier to read by trying to make their pictures clear with enough details to show what is happening and where. They also write in a way that makes the words easier to read, like using spaces, punctuation, and the best spelling they know how to do. Creating a chart that highlights strategies for these types of conventions will be a useful tool for all your students. This is the type of chart that is often turned into an editing checklist to be used regardless of genre.
When deciding which charts you will need it always helps to start with the big goals of your unit and to use these as your guide for selecting which charts might be needed most. Too many charts can be overwhelming and become more like print pollution than helpful scaffolds. And, as with any chart, make sure you and your students refer to each chart often, celebrating their use by all.
Marjorie & Kristi
Hello Dear Readers,
We here at chartchums are developing more consistent features to our blog. To support the requests of all of you we will be approaching each month in the following way:
- one post addressing a popular reading or writing unit
- one post that highlights relevant work from our archives
- one post that addresses readers questions
- and one post that looks at charts in a classroom setting
This week we are tackling some of the most popular reader questions of the past two weeks, which we have collected from comments, @chartchums, and firstname.lastname@example.org. Here are some answers to those wonderful questions…
Can Kristi share her chart font?
As much as Kristi would love to, the whole idea of the chart font is that it match the pictures you put on your own charts, otherwise it becomes another form of clip art. If you are intimidated by drawing your own chart font, we suggest taking a look at our previous posts about drawing, found here and here or by looking at Make a World by Ed Emberley. Another idea Kristi tried was to have the students make some of the symbols.
Do you do seminars?
We do! We have presented from Texas to Connecticut and many states in between! If you are interested in having us work with you, please direct inquiries to email@example.com.
Here is sample of what you can expect when you get a day with the chartchums:
Want the secret to jump-off-the-wall charts that stick with kids? Then you’ll want to meet Kristine Mraz and Marjorie Martinelli, co-authors of Smarter Charts, who will share not only ways to create great charts, but the best practices that will make your charts more powerful and effective than ever. In this one-day workshop Kristi and/or Marjorie will share tips on design and language, instructional use, and self-assessment. You will learn strategies that deepen engagement, strengthen retention, and increase independence—all by involving students in chart making. And you will even learn how to draw!
I am swimming in charts! How many charts should I have up?
At this time of year there are so many charts for routines, it can feel like you are going to use an entire chart pad by the time the month is over. One suggestion to minimize the “print pollution” is to take your routines charts and bind them together with a simple binder ring. Another is to use a sketch pad for these routine charts. Both these strategies allow you to flip to the chart you need at the time you need it. Unlike a “Stretching Words” chart that children may use across the day, a “Setting up For Writing Time” only needs to be seen in that brief window of set-up time. On average, most classrooms have 3 or so charts up for each major subject area.
What is “chart-a-day”?
Chart-a-day is an initiative we have started on twitter (@chartchums) to tweet one smart chart every school day. Send us one of yours and we will retweet it to the world!
Feel free to send us your questions, we will answer them again next month! Until then, happy charting!
Kristi and Marjorie
We know from experience that teaching revolves around the seasons like the earth revolves around the sun. At the start of each school year we resolve to make it the best ever, using all we have learned over the summer and the years past. The challenge is knowing what to continue and what to change. What seems to work year after year? What seems to need revising based on each new group of students entering our classrooms? These questions are what make teaching so invigorating and challenging. It is what keeps us going forward with energy and excitement.
As we began this new school year we found ourselves anticipating some typical scenarios that happen during a writing or reading workshop each and every year. Very quickly we came up with the standard lament heard across the world, “I’m done!” How many of you have already heard this lament? How many times so far? As teachers we have two choices. We can tear our hair out at the instantly greying roots or we can take a breath, smile knowingly, and pull out some full proof plans that have worked again and again in years past.
Well, that is what we have done here. We have taken a breath, smiled knowingly, and pulled out a previous post that deals with this very predictable dilemma that occurs each and every year. “I’m done!” Well, to quote Lucy Calkins and Leah Mermelstein, “When you are done, you have just begun!” Specifically, when it comes to writing it is important that children understand that writing is a never-ending process. This week we revisit Tricia Newhart’s workshop classroom where writers think and plan, sketch and write, and revise with joy! She shows that charts are never static, but grow and change over time. Thank you Tricia for continuing to inspire us all!
Charts, like all living documents, need to be created with your classroom community and grow as you teach more, or as classroom needs change. Below is a series of photos from a first grade classroom that records how the writing process chart grew and changed over the first few days of school. These photos come from the incredible Tricia Newhart, who teaches in Orinda, California. A word about Tricia- when we close our eyes and imagine the ideal “workshop classroom”, Tricia’s room comes to mind. Her responsiveness to children, knowledge about reading and writing, and her absolute fearlessness and bravery in trying new things makes her an inspiration to all!
Here is Tricia’s writing process chart at the very beginning of school. You will notice that she has photos up of children actually doing each part of the chart. Like concrete samples, photos are a great way to capture complex ideas in an accessible way. It also makes the chart tailor-made to each classroom and much more engaging to children. We all tend to look more closely at things when we have been ‘tagged’ in the picture!
At this point, each child has his or her name on a post it, so that they can mark which step of the writing process each child is on. This is a great technique for any chart. Children can put their names on post-its for strategies they want to try, or as Tricia did, to keep track of where they are in a multi-step process.
Here we have that very idea in action!
Here you can see the chart in its final stage stage. Now that children are close to revising, Tricia has added some student work with the actual revisions highlighted in yellow and annotated with sentence strips. If you have been looking close, you will see that the bulk of children moved from planning into the sketching and writing. Tricia is well aware of where they are and taught the next thing that MOST children would need.
Slowly building the chart as needed makes each part more accessible and memorable for children. It also keeps students from getting overloaded from day one. Tricia painted the big picture of the process on day one, but introduced parts more specifically (using post-its to make a plan, ways to revise) as the children needed it.
And one last lovely idea from Tricia:
Here Tricia gives some space for children to put story ideas that pop into their heads during the day. Children can go back to access this during writer’s workshop. Again, the interactive nature of Tricia’s room shows the amount of independence she expects of children and the honor she gives to their thinking and writing.
Enjoy the week ahead and let us know the ways you deal with the expected and the unexpected challenges of teaching and learning!
Until next time, happy charting!
Marjorie and Kristi
If you are like us, you are probably a little dust covered from working in your classroom and excited/anxious to meet your new students. As Kristi situated her rug in close proximity to the smart board, she was reminded of the many thoughtful questions teachers have been raising about technology and charting.
Can I display charts on the smart board to save wall space?
We discourage the display of charts on the smart board for a few a reasons. Yes, it saves space. And yes, it is neater, but it is difficult to display several charts at once. Children will all be working at their own pace on different aspects of reading and writing (and math and social studies and so on…) and will need information that is on a chart that is not just displayed on the smart board. Some children may even want to reference charts outside the time you display them on the smart board. Many a child looks to the “Stretching Words” chart in writing workshop, but also during math, and during inquiry time, and really anytime they have a pen to paper. When we choose which single chart to display the classroom is subject to our whim of what we think children need, but in a true workshop children will need diverse charts. We recommend displaying the chart for the units in a variety of ways: across one board if you have the space, and in smaller sizes if you don’t. The smart board does have powerful uses during reading and writing time, often as a way to prompt for behaviors and help kids track time. There are lots of downloadable times that you can use on your smart board. Pair this with a slide show of students reading and writing for a powerful reminder of what the time is for!
What if I make them on the smart board and print them out?
One amazing aspect of smart boards is that you can co-construct in real time and hit print. This can be a great way to add strategies onto an already existing (and growing) chart. You can use photographs from the classroom and choose the language together during a minilesson or share on your laptop. Once you hit print, you can attach the strategy to the chart you have hanging in the classroom. We do have just one hesitation in this being the ONLY way you add strategies to charts. Teachers in the primary grades can model a great deal implicitly when they hand write in front of their students: letter formation, basic drawing, resilience in the face of trouble. When you make charts with marker on paper, you are more closely modeling what they do in their independent time.
Should I copy and make charts for kids to paste into a notebook or keep in a folder?
The value of technology is that it makes replication easier. If I can print one, I can print thirty. We would advise you to print 30 of anything with caution. The one large chart (or smaller table ones) are meant to support the whole class. Giving a child a copy of every one can make materials management difficult for children. Instead we recommend taking a picture of, or printing, a chart that a certain child needs close at hand.
Recommend any apps to make charting easier?
Can we ever! If you are lucky enough to have a smartphone or an ipad, you can download and use the following. We are sure there are more, so please feel free to leave suggestions in the comments!
Snap allows the user to take a picture and annotate it (there are other apps that do this, Kristi just happens to use Snap). You can hook your iphone up to your smartboard with a VGA cable and do it with your class, or load it to your laptop and print from there.
Pix Stitch allows the user to combine a series of photos into a sequence. This app is useful when you want to show multiple images together. The free version lets you combine up to 5 photos at once. The app is intuitive and simple to use.
Chartchums has written extensively about this here.
iFontmaker (ipad only) allows users to design their own fonts for use on any type of computer. Kristi used this app to create a library of common chart images, so she can use them as she types in Microsoft word.
Let us know how technology makes your charting more powerful!
Kristi and Marjorie
Yes, it’s that time of year again when the Sunday papers are twice as thick due to all the Back to School advertisements and circulars to excite and entice students, teachers, and parents alike. There’s nothing more satisfying than a shiny new binder, a brand new pencil case, and never before used pens, pencils and markers, especially for teachers. These are the tools of our trade. So as you are clipping coupons, marking your calendars with Teacher Appreciation events, and calling everyone you know to pick up a dozen one cent pocket folders (because that’s the limit per person), we thought we would share with you a few of our thoughts about the tools you will need to make the best charts ever this year.
One of the most important tools is the invaluable felt-tip marker. When shopping for markers there are a few things to consider:
The type of tip you choose will depend on some personal preferences, like how it fits in your hand. After all you will be holding these markers all day, every day. Marker tips also come in several different shapes. For example, if you like your printing to have a calligraphy-type look, then a chisel point or a brush tip might work best. If you worry about how your handwriting looks, try a bullet tip marker because this kind of tip has a more consistent line and the thickness makes the writing stand out. If you tend to press down really hard as you write then a pointed hard tip might work best. Also, markers that have intense, rich, ‘juicy’ color that does not bleed through are always desirable, as are ones that last a long time. Another suggestion is to stock up on black and blue markers because these are the ones we recommend using for the bulk of the writing on any chart, which means they will tend to run out more often. The other colors are used more for accents or highlights, so last longer. As for price, shop the sales and clip those coupons.
The other tool chart makers will need is paper. For those of you who have been following us for awhile, you know that in addition to the classic chart paper pads (both lined and unlined, white and colored, full-size and half-size), we often use large florescent colored sticky notes which allow us more flexibility in how we build charts with students. Ready made 6” x 8” post-its come in neon green, orange, yellow, pink, blue, and red and are available in many office supply stores, retailers and on the internet. But, we also love being able to turn any piece of paper into a sticky note with the use of a repositionable or restickable glue stick. What’s nice about this favorite tool is we can purchase multi-colored 8-1/2 x 11 copy paper and use this to make our charts. Besides being able to be used over and over again, there is no sticky residue left behind. Below is an example of a chart that used both the ready-made post-its and the self-made sticky notes.
Lastly, children love seeing themselves on the charts hanging around the room, so plan on having some kind of digital camera, smart phone, or tablet that will allow you to take snapshots of your students in action as they follow the strategies and steps you have taught. Together you and the children can choose which photos are the clearest examples and add them to the chart to remind and reinforce the problem-solving stance that will help everyone become more independent and resourceful as learners. If you adhere these photos to the charts using a repositionable glue stick it will make it easier to change and update the photos as needed. Remember, the more you touch a chart and revise it, the more likely the children will pay attention to it and actually use it!
Have fun shopping and let us know if you have any other must-have tools in your chart-making toolkit.
Marjorie and Kristi
Hopefully wherever you are in the world, you are staying cool and relaxed this summer! If you are like us, and we think you are, now is the time when seed possibilities for next year are blossoming and growing into actual ideas. In the interest of self preservation and having a life, all the ideas we are growing are bound by one rule: does it take the same amount of energy (or less) but create something better? We would love to share what we are thinking with you, in the hopes that you will share yours with our community, and provide feedback and variations in the vein that many heads are always better than one. Below you will find some of the grumbles of the year in bold, and our thoughts of revision below that.
Morning meeting always takes so looooooooong, but I believe in the community building it provides!
Kristi tried a morning meeting and an end of day meeting when they revised the daily news, but always ran out of time. This year she is going to try two meetings: morning meeting- conquering some of the necessary (but time eating) routines: greeting each other, counting the days, reviewing the schedule, then segue into shared reading. Then the class will have an afternoon meeting right after lunch, the focus of this meeting will be TALK: whole class conversations about “news”, a chance to work on oral storytelling, and a review of the afternoon schedule. Daily whole class conversations helped Kristi’s class tremendously with language and listening skills, but it was often cut short – an afternoon meeting protects this time, and also allows for some social skills work since much of the news after recess will be drama filled!
I love sharing with parents but compiling the letter takes a long time, and gets exhausting!
Twitter offers restricted accounts, which means you approve who can join and who can see your tweets. This year I am opening a classroom twitter account for families. It takes two seconds to tweet a photo, and Kristi’s goal is to tweet a daily picture. Less work for her, but more consistent interaction for the parents. A picture is worth a thousand words, so the 140 character limit is a little misleading.
Tentatively, Kristi is also thinking of a monthly twitter chat for families. Topics like: reading at home, helping with spelling, math games…These chats are becoming more and more mainstream, and all a parent needs is a smart phone (which is sometimes more prevalent in homes than a computer).
She is also planning on a shared google calendar. She keeps one for herself, why not share it with families? It can have publishing parties, birthdays, trips, and parents visits in a place that everyone has access to. Not only that – it sends alerts!
That incomplete mental thought is typical of many primary teachers’ feelings about grammar work. We know workbooks don’t work, but when are we working on these important skills? Here are a few low key thoughts that integrate grammar into daily routines:
- Revise the morning message written in the beginning of the day at the end of the day. (We will go to gym becomes We went to gym)
- Play with grammar in shared reading: which animals are male and which are female in Mrs. Wishy Washy? The only way you know is by the he or she used in the line “Oh lovely mud” said the _____ and he/she rolled in it.
- Read aloud more books that deal with grammar, like the excellent Exclamation Mark by Amy Rosenthal (available here)
What are you puzzling through this summer? What lightening bolts have struck you? We would love to hear it! You can tell us in the comments, @chartchums (twitter), @MrazKristine (twitter) or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Happy (thinking about) charting!
Warmly (figuratively and quite literally),
Kristi and Marjorie
With the official arrival of summer and the 4th of July already come and gone, we here at Chartchums began to reflect on the past year by looking back over the 30 posts since the publication of our book Smarter Charts (Heinemann, 2012). We feel so fortunate to have so many supporters and to have met so many of you this year. We thought it might be fun to have a “Top Ten” list of favorite posts or to do a “Best Of” chart photos, but as we continued to think what would be most useful to teachers we came to the conclusion that simple might be best. A simple Table of Contents to help you find what you need when you need it, just like a good chart. We hope you agree and we definitely hope you find it helpful.
Chartchums 2012-2013 School Year Table of Contents
- Getting Back in the Groove (management & routines)
- Going for the Gold: Creating Charts that Challenge and Rally Children (Olympic inspriations)
- Here! Hear! (QR codes)
- Let’s Talk About How to Draw
- Let’s Talk More About Drawing
- Keeping Charts Close (table charts)
- From Mine to Ours (co-authoring charts)
- Live From New York…It’s Chartchums! (webcast with education-talk radio)
- Clarity is Key (using charts to help plan lessons)
- Revising Charts for Clarity and Purpose
- Stay Tuned to Education Talk Radio!
- Chartchums, Not Just For Literacy Anymore (choice time, social studies & science)
- Sharing is Caring: Ideas, Tools, and Charts (charting ideas from teachers)
- Chart Q & A (answers to most asked questions about charts)
- Vocabulary Visuals – Using Charts to Help Make Words Stick
- Life Imitates Chart (community building & management)
- Guest Post: A Special Educator Weighs in on the Writing Workshop (Kathryn Cazes)
- A New Year, A New Start (a focus on independence)
- Planning with charts: What came first, the chart or the teaching?
- Keeping Charts Close – Part 2 (more ideas for using table charts)
- Chat and Chart (co-creating charts with children)
- Charting Celebrates Effort (supporting stamina and volume)
- Inquiring Minds Want to Know (using charts to support inquiry study)
- What’s Play Got To Do, Got To Do With It? (Answer: Everything) (goal-setting)
- So your students are starting to read chapter books!… (guest post by Jennifer Serravallo)
- Whether Gearing Down or Revving Up…Setting kids up for independence (supporting children to use what they have been taught)
- The Upside of Downtime (summer suggestions for teachers)
Marjorie & Kristi